A case of coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccine tolerance and immune response despite presence of anti-polyethylene glycol antibodies (2022).

Adverse reactions to BNT162B2 vaccine in health care workers from an Italian Tertiary Care Hospital (2022).

Allergic Reactions After the Administration of COVID-19 Vaccines (2022).

Allergies and COVID-19 vaccines: An ENDA/EAACI Position paper (2022).

Allergy evaluation of messenger RNA vaccine reactions is crucial, with a specific role for polyethylene glycol testing (2022).

Allergy to polyethylene glycol and polysorbates in a patient cohort: Diagnostic work‐up and decision points for vaccination during the COVID‐19 pandemic (2022).

Anaphylactic reactions to polyethylene glycol-containing bowel cleansing preparations after Moderna COVID-19 vaccination (2022).

Anaphylaxis and Related Events Post-COVID-19 Vaccination: A Systematic Review (2022).

Anaphylaxis caused by pegylated recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (2022).

Anaphylaxis to additives in vaccines (2022)

Anti‑drug Antibody Validation Testing and Reporting Harmonization (2022).

Anti-PEG antibodies compromise the integrity of PEGylated lipid-based nanoparticles via complement (2022).

Applying lessons learned from nanomedicines to understand rare hypersensitivity reactions to mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (2022).

Complement Activation-Related Pseudo Allergy of PEGylated Products: Safety Aspects, Models, the Role of Anti-PEG Antibodies, and Ways to Overcome (2022).

COVID-19 vaccines and anaphylaxis—evaluation with skin prick testing, basophil activation test and Immunoglobulin E (2022).

Hypersensitivity Reactions to COVID-19 Vaccines— Identify High-risk Children and Vaccinate the Rest (2022).

Immune parameters during anaphylaxis to messenger RNA coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines Not the usual suspects? (2022).

Immune Response in Regard to Hypersensitivity Reactions after COVID-19 Vaccination (2022).

mRNA-1273 but not BNT162b2 induces antibodies against polyethylene glycol (PEG) contained in mRNA-based vaccine formulations (2022).

mRNA COVID-19 vaccine safety in patients with previous immediate hypersensitivity to pegaspargase (2022).

Non-allergic nature of vast majority of cutaneous adverse reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: implications on treatment and re-vaccination (2022).

Oncologist counseling practice and COVID-19 vaccination outcomes for patients with history of PEG-asparaginase hypersensitivity (2022).

Optimizing investigation of suspected allergy to polyethylene glycols (2022).

Polyethylene glycol and polysorbate testing in 12 patients before or after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine administration (2022).

Population-Based Incidence, Severity, and Risk Factors Associated with Treated Acute-Onset COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination-Associated Hypersensitivity Reactions (2022).

Potential culprits for immediate hypersensitivity reactions to BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine: not just PEG (2022).

Rapid progress in our understanding of COVID-19 vaccine allergy: A cause for optimism, not hesitancy (2022).

Risk, Causality and Management of Severe Allergic Reactions of RNA Messenger SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine: A Mini Review (2022).

Successful mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in a patient with a history of severe polyethylene glycol anaphylaxis (2022).

The adverse reactions to vaccines practice parameter 10 years on—what have we learned? (2022).

The risk of anaphylaxis behind authorized COVID-19 vaccines: a meta-analysis (2022).

The role of anti-polyethylene glycol (PEG) IgM, IgG, or IgE antibodies
in COVID mRNA vaccine anaphylaxis is unknown. We highlight a
case with preexisting anti-PEG antibodies that tolerated vaccination (2022)

The safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in persons with a known history of pegaspargase allergy: A single institution experience (2022).

Ultrasound-Enhancing Agent Safety: Understanding the New Food and Drug Administration Warning on Polyethylene Glycol (2022).

Understanding the Role and Impact of Poly (Ethylene Glycol) (PEG) on Nanoparticle Formulation: Implications for COVID-19 Vaccines (2022).


A Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of Hospitalizations, Fatalities, and Economic Outcomes Associated with Universal Versus Anaphylaxis Risk-Stratified COVID-19 Vaccination Strategies (2021).

Administration of the Comirnaty® Vaccine in a Fractional Regimen in Two Patients with Immediate Acute Urticaria after the First Dose (2021).

Allergic Reactions and Anaphylaxis to LNP-Based COVID-19 Vaccines (2021).

Allergic reactions to coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines and addressing vaccine hesitancy Northwell Health experience (2021).

Allergic Reactions to COVID-19 Vaccines (2021).

Adverse reactions to COVID-19 vaccines: A practical approach (2021).

Allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccinations—unveiling the secret(s) (2021).

Allergy to polyethylene glycol/macrogol following dental surgery (2021).

An academic hospital experience screening mRNA COVID-19 vaccine risk using patient allergy history (2021).

Anaphylactic reactions to novel mRNA SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 vaccines (2021).

Anaphylaxis associated with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: Approach to allergy investigation (2021).

Anaphylaxis to the first dose of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: Don’t give up on the second dose! (2021).

Anaphylaxis to Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine in a Patient With Clinically Confirmed PEG Allergy (2021).

Answers to burning questions for clinical allergologists related to the new COVID-19 vaccines (2021).

Assessment of Allergic and Anaphylactic Reactions to mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines With Confirmatory Testing in a US Regional Health System (2021).

Clinical manifestations and impact on daily life of allergy to polyethylene glycol (PEG) in ten patients (2021).

Coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine administration in patients with reported reactions to polyethylene glycol- and polysorbatecontaining therapeutics (2021).

COVID-19 mRNA vaccine allergy (2021).

COVID-19 Vaccination in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease and History of Reaction to Injectable Therapies (2021).

COVID-19 Vaccines in Children with Cow’s Milk and Food Allergies (2021).
COVID-19 vaccine-associated anaphylaxis: Astatement of the World Allergy OrganizationAnaphylaxis Committee (2021).

COVID-19 vaccine anaphylaxis: IgE, complement or what else? A reply to: “COVID-19 vaccine anaphylaxis: PEG or not?” (2021).

COVID-19 vaccines and the role of other potential allergenic components different from PEG. A reply to: “Other excipients than PEG might cause serious hypersensitivity reactions in COVID-19 vaccines” (2021).

COVID-19 Vaccine-associated Anaphylaxis and Allergic Reactions: Consensus Statements of the KAAACI Urticaria/Angioedema/Anaphylaxis Working Group (2021).

COVID-19 vaccine testing & administration guidance for allergists/immunologists from the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (CSACI) (2021).

COVID-19 vaccines and vaccine hesitancy: Role of the allergist/immunologist in promotion of vaccine acceptance (2021).

Covid-19 Vaccine-Associated Anaphylaxis: Basophil Activation In A Specific Ige And Igg Negative Patient (2021).

Delving Into COVID-19 Vaccination-Induced Anaphylaxis: Are mRNA Vaccines Safe in Mast Cell Disorders? (2021).

Difference in the lipid nanoparticle technology employed in three approved siRNA (Patisiran) and mRNA (COVID-19 vaccine) drugs (2021).

EAACI statement on the diagnosis, management and prevention of severe allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines (2021).

Excipients as potential agents of anaphylaxis in vaccines: analyzing the formulations of the current authorized COVID-19 vaccines (2021).

Experience with polyethylene glycol allergy-guided risk management for COVID-19 vaccine anaphylaxis (2021).

Expert Consensus Statement from the American Society of Echocardiography on Hypersensitivity Reactions to Ultrasound Enhancing Agents in Patients with Allergy to Polyethylene Glycol (2021).

Evaluation of Patients with Vaccine Allergies Prior to mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccination (2021).

Flow cytometry analysis of anti-polyethylene glycol antibodies in human plasma (2021).

Hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycol (PEG) (2021).

Hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycol in adults and children: An emerging challenge (2021).

Hypersensitivity to the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine caused by tromethamine: PEG is not always the culprit excipient (2021).

IgE-mediated allergy to polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a cause of anaphylaxis to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (2021).

Immediate-Type Hypersensitivity to Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Including a PEG-containing COVID-19 Vaccine Revealed by Intradermal Testing (2021).

In vivo and in vitro testing with PEGylated nanoparticles (2021).

Localized and generalized urticarial allergic dermatitis secondary to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in a series of 6 patients (2021).

Misdiagnosis of systemic allergic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (2021).

mRNA, Nanolipid Particles and PEG: A Triad Never Used in Clinical Vaccines is Going to Be Tested on Hundreds of Millions of People (2021).

mRNA Vaccines to Prevent COVID-19 Disease and Reported Allergic Reactions: Current Evidence and Suggested Approach (2021).

Non−immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy associated with Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine excipient polyethylene glycol (2021).

Omalizumab prevents anaphylactoid reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (2021).

PEG/Polysorbate Skin Testing Has No Utility in the Assessment of Suspected Allergic Reactions to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines (2021).

PEG skin testing for COVID-19 vaccine allergy (2021).

Pfizer’s vaccine raises allergy concerns (2021).

Polyethylene Glycol Allergy Label: Not An Absolute Contraindication To Receiving An mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine (2021).

Polyethylene glycol and polysorbate skin testing in the evaluation of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine reactions Early report (2021).

Polyethylene Glycol Immunogenicity: Theoretical, Clinical, and Practical Aspects of Anti-Polyethylene Glycol Antibodies (2021).

Postvaccination anaphylaxis and mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines—Much ado about nothing? (2021).

Potential mechanisms of anaphylaxis to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (2021).

Practical handling of allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines A position paper from German and Austrian Allergy Societies AeDA, DGAKI, GPA and ÖGAI (2021).

Practical recommendations for the allergological risk assessment of the COVID-19 vaccination – a harmonized statement of allergy centers in Germany (2021).

Primary care provider-reported prevalence of vaccine and polyethylene glycol allergy in Canada (2021).

Pseudo-Anaphylactic Reactions to Pfizer BNT162b2 Vaccine: Report of 3 Cases of Anaphylaxis Post Pfizer BNT162b2 Vaccination (2021).

Safe administration of the Pfizer-BioNtTech COVID-19 vaccine following an immediate reaction to the first dose (2021).

SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination and Anaphylaxis: Recommendations of the French Allergy Community and the Montpellier World Health Organization Collaborating Center (2021).

Severe allergic reactions after COVID-19 vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine in Great Britain and USA (2021).

Severe allergic reactions to the COVID-19 vaccine – statement and practical consequences (2021).

Skin testing with Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and PEG 2000 (2021).

The COVID-19 Pandemic in 2021: Avoiding Overdiagnosis of Anaphylaxis Risk While Safely Vaccinating the World (2021).

The form of PEG matters: PEG conjugated with lipids and not PEG alone could be the specific form involved in allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines (2021).

The Polysorbate containing AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is tolerated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) allergic patients (2021).

The Risk of Allergic Reaction to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines and Recommended Evaluation and Management: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, GRADE Assessment, and International Consensus Approach (2021).

The value of the basophil activation test in the evaluation of patients reporting allergic reactions to the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (2021).

Ultrasound contrast agent hypersensitivity in patients allergic to polyethylene glycol: position statement by the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (2021).

Vaccine allergy: evidence to consider for COVID-19 vaccines (2021).

Vaccines and allergic reactions: The past, the current COVID-19 pandemic, and future perspectives (2021).


Allergic reactions to the first COVID-19 vaccine: a potential role of Polyethylene glycol? (2020).

Anti-PEG antibodies: Properties, formation, testing and role in adverse immune reactions to PEGylated nano-biopharmaceuticals (2020).

Anti-PEG IgE In anaphylaxis associated with Polyethylene Glycol (2020).

Maintaining Safety with SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines (2020).

Polyethylene glycol-induced systemic allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) (2020).

Suspicions grow that nanoparticles in Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine trigger rare allergic reactions (2020).


Hypersensitivity to Polyethylene Glycols & Polysorbates (2019).

Immediate Hypersensitivity to Polyethylene Glycols and Polysorbates: More Common Than We Have Recognized (2019).

Immediate hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols in unrelated products: when standardization in the nomenclature of the components of drugs, cosmetics, and food becomes necessary (2019).

Polyethylene Glycol Is a Cause of IgE-Mediated anaphylaxis (2019).

Polyethylene glycols and polysorbates: Two still neglected ingredients causing true IgE-mediated reactions (2019).

Pseudo-anaphylaxis to Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-Coated Liposomes: Roles of Anti-PEG IgM and Complement Activation in a Porcine Model of Human Infusion Reactions (2019).


Optimization of a PEGylated glucuronide monomethylauristatin E Linker for Antibody–Drug Conjugates (2017).

Analysis of pre-existing IgG and IgM antibodies against Polyethylene
Glycol (PEG) in the general population (2016).

Allergic reactions associated with pegaspargase in adults (2016).

Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols: a review (2016).

Polyethylene glycol as a cause of anaphylaxis (2016).

Pre-existing anti-PEG antibodies are associated with severe immediate allergic reactions to pegnivacogin, a PEGylated aptamer (2016).

Anaphylaxis following a transvaginal ultrasound (2016).

PEGylation of biopharmaceuticals: A review of chemistry and nonclinical safety information of approved drugs (2016).

Anaphylaxis to Polyethylene Glycol (Colyte®) in a patient with
diverticulitis (2016).

Anti-PEG antibodies in the clinic: current issues and beyond
PEGylation (2016).

Allergic reaction to polyethylene glycol in a painter (2015).

Anaphylactic shock caused by ingestion of Polyethylene Glycol (2015).

Pre-existing anti–polyethylene glycol antibody linked to first-exposure allergic reactions to pegnivacogin, a PEGylated RNA aptamer (2015).

Urticaria due to polyethylene glycol-3350 and electrolytes for oral solution in a patient with jejunal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (2015).

Polyethylene Glycols (PEG) and related structures: overlooked allergens in the perioperative setting (2015).

Induced and pre-existing anti-polyethylene glycol antibody in a trial of every 3-week dosing of pegloticase for refractory gout, including in organ transplant recipients (2014).

Potential induction of anti-PEG antibodies and complement activation
toward PEGylated therapeutics (2014).

Discussion about Several Potential Drawbacks of PEGylated Therapeutic Proteins (2014).

Inhibition of polyethylene glycol–induced histamine release by monomeric ethylene and diethylene glycol: A case of probable polyethylene glycol allergy (2013).

A phase II clinical trial of polyethylene glycol-conjugated L-asparaginase in patients with advanced ovarian cancer: Early closure for safety (2013).

PEGylation of Biologics (2013)

A case of anaphylaxis caused by macrogol 3350 after injection of a corticosteroid (2012).

Positive skin test to pegylated drug in a patient with anaphylaxis to
polyethylene glycol (2012).

Pegylated interferon, but not conventional interferon therapy, induced severe skin lesions (2012).

Immunogenicity of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) (review, 2011).

A rare case of anaphylaxis to bowel Prep: A case report and review of the literature (2011).

Poly(ethylene glycol) in drug delivery: pros and cons as well as potential alternatives (2010).

PEGylated protein drugs: basic science and clinical applications (Book, 2009).

Immediate allergic reactions by polyethylene glycol 4000: two cases (2008).

Poly(ethylene glycol)s generate complement activation products in human serum through increased alternative pathway turnover and a MASP-2-dependent process (2008).

Anaphylactic shock after oral intake and contact urticaria due to polyethylene glycols (2007).

Antibody against Poly(Ethylene Glycol) adversely affects PEG-asparaginase therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients (2007).

Fatal aspiration of polyethylene glycol solution (2006).

Hypersensitivity and loss of disease site targeting caused by antibody responses to PEGylated liposomes (2006).

Two cases of anaphylaxis to macrogol 6000 after ingestion of drug tablets (2006).

Anaphylactic shock: pathophysiology, recognition, and treatment (2004).

Role of complement activation in hypersensitivity reactions to doxil and hynic PEG liposomes: experimental and clinical studies (2002)

Urticarial reaction to oral polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (1992)

Polyethylene glycol reactive antibodies in man: titer distribution in allergic patients treated with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol modified allergens or placebo, and in healthy blood donors (1984)

Anaphylaxis to polyethylene glycol (PEG) in a multivitamin tablet (1982)